Not long ago, incandescent lights are in actions in most of the household. But in recent time, with the rapid progression of energy-saving lights and wide public demand with enforced Legal reforms, the incandescent has taken a back seat. In this comprehensive review, we try to look at the histories, features, and comparisons of incandescent to a certain degree.
History of Incandescent lights
Henry Woodward and Evans invented the concept of incandescent bulbs. Later great scientist Thomas Alva Edison purchased the patent to improvise the product to a marketable one. Edison uses the oxygen-less enclosure to produce great results. The first bulb only lasts for 40 hours but since then the incandescent light has come a long way to produce excellent improvements.
Incandescent light technology is very fair and simple. The technology employs tungsten or similar materials to heat due to the electricity produce light energy. These super quality inventions have been a key principle of lighting industry worldwide. The tungsten filament burns out slowly with the glass surface.
The temperature is quite low on the glass surface. But in the open air, it will get oxidized to complete burn out. The longevity of the light depends on the material. The quality of the material is greatly dependent on the existence of the material. With every electricity application, the material lost its atom. Subsequently, after a few days, the bulb got dead due to lack of strength in the tungsten.
The incandescent lights lose their grip in the lighting industry because of the following drawbacks.
Energy-saving becomes a topic of interest in the policymakers. Due to the high price of energy and combustion of fossil fuel make the ground for appliances with low energy use. The incandescent light produces yellowish lights. To have excellent white lights, it requires higher energy consumption.
The luminous efficacy is very much dependent on the performance of human vision. Human vision more complies with whiter lights. The white lights from LED are more convenient to human vision. This LED technology is disrupting the market. A 60-Watt incandescent light can be replaced with the adoption of 7-15 Watt LED or fluorescent lights.
Though incandescent light has improved than the start. But the lifespan is quire low compared to halogen and LED lights. The lower lifespan means it requires more replacement cost compared to other lighting solution. The light bulbs produce a lot of heat energy as well as generating light. That is why it is losing its popularity among the users.
Regulation regarding Incandescent lights
Incandescent lights are in the scrutiny for various reasons. Recent regulation regarding energy efficiency reduces the uses of incandescent lights to a great effect. Still, the energy regulator does not ban them. But they maintain regulation regarding the efficiency of the lights. Only a few manufacturers can maintain this kind of lights to a certain degree. The quality of the light has been an issue of interest for a certain period.
Before purchasing or recommending an incandescent light, you need to consider some critical parameters
The wattage of the light is a basic quantity. The power rating determines the amount of power required to operate. For higher watt reading, the electricity price will increase to a certain percentage. That is why it is important to have the correct rating. Mostly 100-Watt power rating used by a lot of manufacturers. This power rating and proper voltage rating is quite important for the sustainability of bulbs.
The color tone is now the determinant factor for uses of any kind of bulbs. Nowadays the lights are used in wide range circumstances. People use light outside, tracks and many other applications. To complete different features and a wide range of applications, we need a wide range of lights with different color tone.
3000K lights are very important to provide floodlights and spotlight positions. But there are some lights which produce a better result.
This is one of the most critical parameters for any particular lights. Low-pressure sodium, LED, high-pressure sodium and LED have the most quality luminous efficacy. In this following graph, you can easily see the difference and performance of different lighting solution and their performance from 1920 to 2010.
Figure1: Luminous efficiency of different lighting Solutions
The lifecycle cost
The lifecycle cost of an incandescent bulb is very poor compared to other lighting technology. The lifecycle cost for a particular lamp is quite high because of the low lifecycle. It requires a great amount of replacement cost.
How to improve the performance of incandescent lights
The performance of the lights improves with different materials. Proper use of inert gas will also increase the performance. Clever use of vacuum can be another solution. For a certain period, this lighting technology has reached its saturation in terms of efficiency, cost, and other technical features.
Better results come with tungsten but tungsten is not as widely available as silicon. A recent development in Solid state physics and semiconductor has improved the performance of LED to a certain order that manufacturers have lost interest in incandescent technologies.
Phosphorus LED is widely used but other materials are also in research to produce better results. In recent times multi-fabricated silicon Incandescent lamps have come to the scene. But this lighting technique showed some success but the manufacturing industry do not show a resurgent interest.
Some research of mixing semiconductor filament with different bases are also researched and patented. These developments have shown promise with the incandescent bulbs but the LED technology has taken the center stage placements.
Incandescent light has served the humankind for a longer period. Like all other old technologies, this technology is becoming obsolete day by day. Maybe today this lighting technology has very limited things to offer. But the lighting industry will be indebted towards this technology as a foundation of modern urban lighting.
Global warming and the sustainable environment we have to say goodbye this technology. Recent developments show LED technology will have the potential to replace incandescent lights.